Marker Vaccines & DIVA diagnostics - Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals

London, NW1 2EZ
Friday, 27 October 2006

Marker Vaccines & DIVA diagnostics - Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals
Friday, 27 October 2006 09:00 - 17:00

The MI Centre
81–103 Euston Street
United Kingdom

 “Never has there been such an exciting period in the field of veterinary vaccinology: How will modern genomics contribute to vaccine development? Will breeding for resistance overtake the need for vaccines? Is basic immunology moving too fast for technology transfer to keep up? Role of marker vaccines in emergency disease outbreaks Can we develop new AI vaccines in time to prevent a pandemic? This conference will address many of these issues drawing on the expertise of top scientists in international vaccine Research and development" Chair: Professor Andrew Peters - Director of ARPEXAS Ltd, University of Nottingham

09:15 – 09:45 Registration

09:45 – 10:00 Introduction by the Chair: Professor Andrew Peters - Director of ARPEXAS Ltd, University of Nottingham, UK

10:00 – 10:30 FMD Vaccination the current status and future prospects Bryan Charleston, Institute for Animal Health, Compton, Newbury, UK

10:30 – 11:00 Development of TB vaccines and reagents for differential diagnosis for cattle: two sides of the same coin Dr Martin Vordermeier - Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Surrey, UK
Development of cattle vaccines against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a GB research priority. To continue with test and slaughter-based TB control strategies alongside vaccination, development of reagents that allow the differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals (differential diagnosis) is a vital element of TB vaccine development. I will describe the advances made in developing cattle TB vaccines that are more effective than the prototype vaccine strain BCG, in the context of the development of reagents for differential diagnosis. The application of comparative genome or transcriptome analysis in conjunction with rapid peptide-based immunological screening methods has been invaluable to identify potential diagnostic antigens and its pivotal role will be discussed.

11:00 – 11:30 Mid-morning break: tea/coffee

11.30 –12:00 A vaccination strategy for gammaherpesviruses: malignant catarrhal fever in cattle
Professor David Haig, Moredun Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative, autoimmune disease of cattle, deer and bison. MCF is caused by the ?-herpesviruses alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (wildebeest reservoir, Africa) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (sheep reservoir, worldwide). MCF is asymptomatic in the reservoir species. There is no control measure for MCF. We have devised an immunisation regime using attenuated virus that stimulates a mucosal barrier of virus-neutralising antibody that protects cattle against AlHV-1 MCF. There is currently no herpesvirus vaccine that prevents the establishment of latency as well as disease. However the mucosal barrier approach has the potential to do this.

12:00 – 12:30 Marker vaccine and Differentiating Infected from FMD Vaccinated Animals
Dr Satya Parida - Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, UK

12:30 – 13:00 DIVA vaccination-selected excursions to the past, present and future Dr Patricia Koenig, Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedlich-Loeffler-Institut, Germany
Vaccination is one of the most powerful tools to protect animals against infectious diseases, and for the most viral infections prophylactic vaccination is the only available instrument of efficient disease control. The method of choice for controlling epizootics is “stamping out”. However, mass culling of non-infected animals could be limited by immunisation with vaccines that allow differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals. In addition, highly prevalent infectious diseases are to be eradicated with DIVA vaccines. As examples for DIVA vaccination, Aujeszky’s disease and BHV 1 will be addressed, and new prototype vaccines against CSF and avian influenza will be introduced.

13.00 – 14:00 Lunch

14:00 – 14:30 Diagnostic tests – standardisation or regulation? -
Professor Steve Edwards, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Surrey, UK
Diagnostic tests, whether intended for DIVA strategies or other applications, fall into two main categories – integrated kits (generally marketed as commercial products) or in-house tests using off the shelf reagents. The amount of regulation of such procedures, particularly the kit packages, varies hugely between different countries, and to some extent according the nature of the disease being investigated. At international level the OIE has initiated programmes of harmonisation and standardisation over many years, and has more recently set up a register of tests that have been through a comprehensive evaluation of their validation dossiers. The talk will consider whether there is a need for any greater degree of regulation.

14:30 – 15:00 DNA Vaccine Approaches using Skin Immunization and Gene Gun Delivery Prof. Ning-Sun Yang, Institute of BioAgricultural Sciences, Taiwan
As a physical means, gene gun-mediated delivery of plasmid DNA into skin tissues has been shown to confer effective transgene expression in epidermal cell layers of animal and human systems. This strategy has been successfully employed by our laboratory to demonstrate cytokine gene therapy approaches against cancers, e.g., IL-12 gene transfer into skin distant from the tumor site can elicit anti-metastatic effects equivalent to a long gene transfer. We also demonstrated that the particle mediated DNA vaccination against mouse melanoma by co-transfection of cDNA vectors encoding gp100 and GM-CSF can result in effective, T-cell dependent protection in vaccinated mice challenged with murine hpg100/B16 melanoma tumors. Gene gun and electroporation methods can effectively deliver a foot-and-mouth-disease (FMD) viral (VP4-1) protein expression vector in vivo, and result in efficient expression of transgenic VP1 proteins, the anti-body or virus-clearance immune responses were demonstrated. Based on these findings, we suggest that gene gun may have applications for clinical studies of DNA vaccines against cancer or infectious diseases.

15:00 - 15:30  Afternoon Break

15:30 – 16:00 Application of DIVA vaccines for the control of OIE listed diseases – Animal Health and Welfare Panel (European Food Safety Authority) .

Mrs Sandra Correia Rodeia, Animal Health and Welfare Panel, European Food Safety Authority, Italy
EFSA’s scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare deals with questions on all aspects of animal health and animal welfare, primarily relating to food producing animals including fish. Two of the scientific reports/Opinions adopted by this Panel, have dealt with the issue of DIVA-vaccines: “Definition of a BoHV-1-free animal and a BoHV-1-free holding, and the procedures to verify and maintain this status.” and “Animal health and welfare aspects of Avian Influenza”. In both cases the Panel recommended the use of DIVA vaccines, which in combination with the relevant diagnostic test provide an efficient tool for the differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals.,

16:00 - 16:30  Classical swine fever marker vaccine: What have we learnt thus far..." - Dr Jereon Kortekaas, Division of Infectious Diseases, Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen UR, Lelystad, The Netherlands.
Within the boundaries of the EU, outbreaks of classical swine fever (CSF) are currently controlled by quarantine restrictions and slaughtering of suspected herds. The availability of an effective markervaccine with accompanying diagnostic test is expected to facilitate the implementation of more humane and economical intervention strategies. In the past 20 years several types of markervaccines have been developed, which vary from subunit vaccines to modified-live viruses. This talk will provide an overview of available methodologies and their advantages, disadvantages and prospective will be discussed.

16:30 Chairmans summing up


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